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Alopecia Areata - It is a type of hair loss that can affect any area appellant furnished. From the clinical point of view, alopecia areata can manifest different models. Although benign medical, alopecia areata can cause tremendous emotional and psychosocial stress in patients affected and their families.
- The hypothesis most widely accepted is that alopecia areata is related to cell mediated autoimmune and T-which is most likely to occur in people genetically predisposed. Alopecia areata true cause remains unknown. There are several theories about the causes, such as:
Theory of autoimmunity.
The evidence supporting the hypothesis that alopecia areata is an autoimmune condition. The process seems to be mediated cellular T, but were discovered and antibodies directed against the hair.
Many factors favor the predisposition to alopecia areata. Frequency between patients affected family members is estimated at 20%. The incidence is increased in people with severe forms of alopecia compared to the location.
Innervation and vasculature theory.
The fact that patients with alopecia areata reported occasional itching or pain in the affected areas raises the possibility alteration peripheral nervous system.
Another hypothesis was proposed alopecia areata to explain pathology. It is considered to have an infectious origin, but did not reveal any microbial agent constant.
Symptoms: The most common symptom of alopecia areata is hair loss, the hair usually falls in patches small round. In rare cases, the condition can progress to complete hair loss on the head (alopecia areata totalis) or complete loss of hair on the head, face and body (alopecia areata universalis) .In cases of alopecia areata universalis, loss of eyelashes and eyebrows and nose hair and ear, can make a person more vulnerable to dust, germs and foreign particles entering the eye, nose and ears.
Treatment is not required because the condition is benign, and spontaneous remission and recurrence are common. The therapies include growth stimulation regimes but they can not influence the initial evolution of the disease. Intralesional corticosteroid injections or therapy include topical application. Hair growth may persist for up to 9 months after an injection. Topical immunotherapy is defined as the induction of allergic contact dermatitis from topical application of potent allergens. Systemic therapy with psoralen and ultraviolet A shows a 20-73% cure rates, but recurrence is high.