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Hepatitis B - is an infection caused serious liver by hepatitis B. For some people, hepatitis B becomes chronic, leading to liver failure, liver cancer or cirrhosis - a condition that causes permanent scarring of the liver.
Hepatitis B is an infection caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). HBV is transmitted from one person to another through blood, semen or other body fluids. When HBV enters the liver, it invades the liver cells and begin to multiply. This causes inflammation in the liver and lead to signs and symptoms of infection with hepatitis B.
HBV is transmitted common ways include:
sexual contact. Infection can contact following a unprotected sex with an infected partner or coming in contact with blood, saliva, semen or vaginal secretions.
Sharing needles. HBV is easily transmitted through needles and syringes contaminated with infected blood. Sharing intravenous (IV) drug accessories have an increased risk of infection with hepatitis B.
accidental bites. Hepatitis B is a concern for health care workers and anyone else who comes in contact with human blood.
From mother to child. Pregnant women infected with HBV can transmit the virus to their babies during birth.
Hepatitis B can be short-lived (acute hepatitis B) or long term (chronic hepatitis B).
Acute hepatitis B infection lasts more than six months. If the disease is acute, immune system is usually able to kill the virus in the body, leading to a full recovery within a few months. Most people who acquire hepatitis B as adults have an acute infection.
Chronic hepatitis B infection lasts for six months or more. When the immune system can not fight the virus, hepatitis B can become the lifelong, can lead to serious diseases such as cirrhosis and liver cancer. Most children infected with HBV at birth and many children infected between 1 and 5 years are chronically infected. Chronic infections can go undetected for decades until a person becomes seriously ill from liver disease.
Signs and symptoms
Signs and symptoms of hepatitis B usually occur approximately two to three months after infection and can vary from mild to severe. Signs and symptoms of hepatitis B include:
Loss of appetite
Nausea and vomiting
Weakness and fatigue
Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
Most infants and children with hepatitis B do not develop signs and symptoms. The same is true for some adults.
Blood tests are used to diagnose hepatitis B. Blood tests can tell if your liver is working properly and show can also be used to monitor your condition during treatment.
The physician can look at the liver with ultrasound or X-ray liver biopsy may be also required. The liver biopsy, a small piece of liver is removed and examined under a microscope. A liver biopsy can help the doctor diagnose the disease and see your liver.
If you have acute hepatitis B, your body may be able to fight the infection on their own, which means you may not need treatment. Your doctor will help you manage and monitor your condition symptoms while the body will struggle to heal hepatitis B.
If you have been diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B infection, your doctor may recommend:
Antiviral medications. Antiviral drugs help fight the virus and reduce the ability to damage the liver. There are several medications. Your doctor may suggest that drugs may be most appropriate for each patient.
liver transplant. If your liver was badly damaged, a liver transplant may be an option. During a liver transplant, the surgeon removes the damaged liver and replaces it with a healthy liver. Most transplantaturi come from deceased donors, although a small number come from living donors.
The best way to prevent hepatitis B vaccine. Hepatitis B vaccine is usually given in a series of three or four occasions over a period of 6 months. The vaccine is safe for adults and children and is usually given to infants at birth.